Simply Al QURAN

Huroof of the tongue
حروف اللسان

Back of Tongue – Aqs Al Lisaan


Qaaf – Makhraj: the soft part/tissue after the hard bone on your upper palette at the back of the upper palette. Especially with kassrah, e.g. Qeela, there should be a clicking sound (listen to Mahmoud Khalil Al Hosary for clarification). Same part of tongue used as kaaf, but touching a different part of the roof of the mouth.



  • Al Muzammil: 5 (fathah)
  • Al 'Alaq: 1-2 (sukoon)
  • Word: Qaa'ima

Kaaf – Its point of articulation is just in front of Qaaf. Kaaf uses the hard bone. No air should come out, even when kaaf has sukoon. You can test this by putting your hand in front of your mouth when saying the “kaa”.




  • Baqarah: 10 “Yakthiboon”
  • Surah Ash-Sharh: 1-4

Middle of Tongue – Wasat Al Lisaan


Jeem- There are two ways people say the Jeem. First is the flat jeem, which is exactly the same as the english “j” sound. The second, which is better, is to stick the tip of the tongue behind the front bottom teeth, towards the gums. More density in the second one. Tongue touches top palette.




  • Baqarah: 19 (beginning part, sukoon)
  • An-Naba: 9 (fathah)

Sheen – Tongue touches top palette.




  • Ash-Sharh: 1 (sukoon)
  • Istia'dha (fathah)

Yaa - Make sure it is pronounced with enough emphasis. The tongue should touch the top palette, but with the yaa, there should be a dip in the tongue, which gives the yaa its density. Pronouncing yaa with shaddah helps you to pronounce it with its full density.




  • Fatihah: 5 (fathah and shaddah)
  • Al Kawthar: 1 (sukoon)

Tip of Tongue


Zaa – Vibration/buzzing produced, sharp letter. Tip of tongue pushing against edges of bottom front teeth. Has safeer – whisper/hissing.Safeer is a sound which comes from the edge of tongue when it touches the bottom teeth.




  • At-Teen: 1 (shaddah and fathah)
  • Ghafir: 2 (kassrah)
  • Ash-Sharh: 2 (sukoon)

Seen - Tip of tongue touching bottom front teeth. Has safeer.  Keep your lips straight, especially important with dhamma, otherwise it will be pronounced as saad. Relax lips.




  • Fatihah: 6 – Seen should be straight (sukoon)
  • Baqarah: 6, 13 (fathah)

Saad – Has safeer. Lips in same position as with seen. Don't round lips on dhamma except after having reached the makhraj of the saad. “Soo”, dhamma needs to be kept light, even though saad is heavy. Tongue shouldn't be raised up when in the dhamma. Saad has isti'laa (rising of the back of the tongue), and this is the main difference to seen. If both seen and saad have sukoon, lips are the same.




  • Fatihah: 6 – Keep lips straight in one position all the way. (kassrah)
  • Baqarah: 182 – (sukoon and tanween) – make sure saad doesn't sound like a seen. Relax lips and bring them back.

Thaa - Sticking tip of tongue under the edges of top two front teeth in between the top and bottom teeth. Blade of the tongue is used. Should be soft, some people exagerrate and apply too much pressure.




  • Baqarah: 174, 41 (fathah)
  • Name: 'Uthman. (sukoon)

Dhaal - Sticking tip of tongue (flat side of it) under the edges/tips of the front top two teeth, in between the top and bottom teeth. Should be a smooth sound, a constant smooth sound, prolong it to check. Needs to be soft, light (muraqqaq). Lips straight, very important, especially with dhamma, otherwise make it sound like THaa.




  • Isti'adha – lips come back for the dhaal (dhamma)
  • Baqarah: 2  (fathah)
  • Yusuf: 4 (sukoon)
  • Other words: Dhikra, Idhhab, Dhukira
 THaa - Also flat side of tongue used. Common mistake – when the letter has kassrah. It is “'ATHeem” not “'Adheem.” Some don't make enough emphasis, have to make it heavy. Still need to keep the yaa of “'ATHeem” light. For fathah, tongue still raised.  References:
  • Baqarah: 20 (sukoon)
  • Baqarah : 45 “Thalimeen” (fathah)



Placing the tip of the tongue (flat side) between the gums and the tips of the top two front teeth. Common mistake: daal sounds like taa. To get rid of the taa sound, you should use more surface area and push more of the tongue against the teeth. Be easy in letting go, not using the blade of the tongue, using the flat side of the tongue.


Similar to english “d”, not as sharp though e.g. deep, dog. English d not as subtle as daal . Daal is a muraqqaq (light) letter. English d, less surface area used. Arabic daal, more surface area used, blade of tongue shouldn't be touching the bottom tips/edges of the teeth.


Bring lips back for clarity and smoothness. Common mistakes – daal with shaddah and dhamma (yawm id-deen), often pronounced too heavily. Make sure kassrah or anything before daal is correct in order to make sure daal is light.




  • Fatihah: 4  (shaddah and kassrah) – take time to release it, take it slowly and softy.
  • Falaq: 5 (sukoon)
  • Masadd: 1 (fathah)



Needs to be a very soft sound, relax and control it when releasing. Avoid qalqala (echo) by pronouncing taa too quick, spend time on it.Thinner surface area changes it and distinguishes it from daal. Flat side of tongue used.


Different opinions with regards to whether air can be released:


  1. Having a small sound  is correct – slight hamz (release of breath) - e.g. Al 'Afasy
  2. Without any hamz (shouldn't release any air) and sound – this is the opinion we follow insha'Allah. One opinion within this is that it happens when it comes with tanween, otherwise, it is plain. (Tin, tun, tan) – If you can or not implement it, you are correct insha'Allah. However, if you do implement it, it should be known/recognisable that you're making a difference with the tanween and this should be constant throughout the recitation.

“Wa itha tutla”– taa with dhamma and sukoon. According to the opinion we follow, even when the taa has sukoon, air cannot be released i.e. the sound should be let go without air being released.




  • At-Teen: 1-2 (kassrah, dhamma)
  • Baqarah: 286 - “Rabbana wa la tuhamillna” (dhamma)
  • Muzammil: 4 (fathah, kassrah)
  • Maryam: 74 “Wa itha tutla” (sukoon and dhamma)

TAA (Shaytaan)


One of the letters of Qalqala (echo). Explodes/pops. Flat surface of the tip of tongue used, not the blade. Tongue pushed against front two top teeth. Distinguish between taa and TAA. Don't round lips. “Tu” – relax t and u. There are two opinions regarding the heaviness of the TAA.


  1. Some say TAA should be pronounced with normal tafkheem (heaviness) in all 3 cases (dhamma, kassrah and fathah) and there should be isti'laa. We take this opinion.
  2. Others say it is not necessary to pronounce the letter with tafkheem because of the makhraj of the TAA.



  • Isti'adha (fathah)
  • Baqarah: 285-286
            “Wa qalu samir'na wa ata'na”..... (fathah)

            “Rabbana wa la tuhamillna” (fathah)

  • Quraish: 4 (sukoon)



Some scholars say raa has two makhaarij/exit points. One in the form of kassrah and the other in the form of dhamma and fathah. Others say there is only one makhraj. Don't need to take it to a different makhraj.


Makhraj: After the gums, at the flat, hard bone, before the dome begins. Blade of tongue used. Only one flick of the tongue needed to pronounce the letter. Raise back of tongue once for fathah and dhamma. When raa is with kassrah, the tongue needs to be straight. It's not a letter of tafkheem (heaviness).


Two ways of doing shaddah.

  1. Come to raa. Sound stops on sukoon then you continue e.g Ar-Rahman.
  2. Reach the makhraj. Let the raa float/vibrate, then come of it with the flick. e.g. Minshaawi-Yaseen. We take this opinion insha'Allah.






HEAVY – Mufakham – Heavy – Full Mouth


  • If fathah on the raa/laam, make it heavy.  (Ar-Rahman, Birra, Rabbun, Rajulun)
  • If dhamma on the raa/laam, make it heavy (Rukbaan)

LIGHT – Muraqqaq – Light – Empty Mouth


  • If kassrah on the raa/laam, make it light (Sharri, Birri, Rijaalun)



  • Letter before has kassrah, LIGHT – Fir'awn, Ir'shaad. FEW EXCEPTIONS – When the letter after raa is a heavy letter you make the raa heavy- Mir'saad

  • Letter before has dhamma, HEAVY – Qur'aan, Takaathur

  • Letter before has fathah – HEAVY - Ar'baab



When the raa has a shaddah, depends what is on the raa (see above)




  • 1- What comes before the raa
  • 2- What's on the raa – We take this opinion insha'Allah
  • 3- What comes before the raa and what is on the raa - muraqqaq and mufakham e.g. RahmanIR Raheem – Sukoon on first raa and letter before has kassrah (light), Fathah on the second raa (heavy); the raa has shaddah. This opinion has its evidence.

Khabeer – When raa preceeded with a yaa, even if yaa has fathah before it, make raa muraqqaq (light).


If the letter before has sukoon and raa has sukoon too, look what is before.e.g. Ard, 'Asr, Yusr, Yasr, Fajr =heavy. 2 opinions as to how to pronounce these words:


  1. Slide your tongue smoothly from one letter to the other e.g. “Sab” and “r” flick
  2. Do qalqala on the letter that becomes before e.g. 'Asr. Important not to add a fathah when attempting to do the qalqala (echo). We take this opinion insha'Allah.

Majority of people make mistake - “Akbar” - make ba heavy which is wrong. Raa is heavy though.




  • Fatihah: 1 (fathah)
  • Fatihah: 3 (fathah)
  • Kawthar (sukoon)



Blade of tongue used. Touches just above gum line.


  • Lips relaxed completely = wrong
  • Keep lips straight (straight smile – gap between lips - lift lips a bit so they are not completely relaxed) and leave sides empty for the air to pass through for the sound to be amplified = right

Rule only for the word “Allah”. Laam in Allah, Kitabullah, minAllah, anAllah, rasulullah (fathah and dhamma on previous letter) is deep/full mouth, although it is not a mufakham letter. Isti'laa – raising of tongue in these cases. If kassrah on previous letter, the laam is light e.g. Bismillah, lillah. RadiyALLahu – yaa should be kept light.




Uses more of the tip of the tongue, uses the flat top side of tongue. Laam and noon are very close together so you need to be careful.




  • Baqarah: 44 (sukoon and fathah: noon, fathah: laam)
  • An-Naba: 9 – (sukoon: laam, fathah: noon)